Différences entre les versions de « Utilisateur:NicolasSaunier/Brouillon/Les Transports/Introduction »

Il résulte des différences entre les différents modes de transport une compétition lorsque plusieurs alternatives existent : les usagers feront des choix selon leurs capacités, besoins et préférences, ce qui résultera en différentes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_share parts modales], qui fait l'objet d'analyse en économie des transports<ref>Rodrigue, J-P et al. (2017) The Geography of Transport Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography, https://transportgeography.org/contents/chapter5/transportation-modes-modal-competition-modal-shift/ (en anglais)</ref>.
TODO verifier https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_pour_compte_d%27autrui
TODO mentionner des critères de performance: vitesse et capacité.
ordres de grandeur https://nacto.org/publication/transit-street-design-guide/introduction/why/designing-move-people/
(technologies de CIV6707A: support (contact vertical), guidage, propulsion, contrôle)
caractéristiques, capacités: fonction du taux d'occupation (personnes ou marchandises)
intermodal = multimodal pour ce qui nous concerne (définition stricte pour le transport de marchandises)
Compétition ou complémentarité entre les modes selon leur coût, vitesse, accessibilité, fréquence, sécurité, confort, etc.
There are three main conditions that insure that some modes are complementing one another:
Different geographical markets. It is clear that if different markets are involved, modes will permit a continuity within the transport system, particularly if different scales are concerned, such as between national and international transportation. This requires an interconnection, commonly known as a gateway, where it is possible to transfer from one mode to the other. Intermodal transportation has been particularly relevant to improve the complementarity of different geographical markets.
Different transport markets. The nature of what is being transported, such as passengers or freight, often indicates a level of complementarity. Even if the same market area is serviced, it may not be equally accessible depending of the mode used. Thus, in some markets rail and road transportation can be complementary as one may be focusing on passengers and the other on freight.
Different levels of service. For a similar market and accessibility, two modes that offer a different level of service will tend to complement another. The most prevailing complementarity concerns costs versus time.
Thus, there is modal competition when there is an overlap in geography, transport and level of service. Cost is one of the most important considerations in modal choice. Because each mode has its own price/performance profile, the actual competition between the modes depends primarily upon the distance traveled, the quantities that have to be shipped and the value of the goods.
A modal shift involves the growth in the demand of a transport mode at the expense of another, although a modal shift can involve an absolute growth in both of the concerned modes.
With increasing income levels, the propensity for people to travel rises. At the same time, international trade in manufactured goods and parts has increased. These trends in travel demand act differently upon the modes. Those that offer the faster and more reliable services gain over modes that might offer a lower cost, but slower, alternative. For passenger services, rail has difficulty in meeting the competition of road transport over short distances and aircraft for longer trips.
Modal usage. Competition that involves the comparative advantage of using a specific or a combination of modes. Distance remains one of the basic determinants of modal usage for passenger transportation. However, for a similar distance, costs, speed and comfort can be significant factors behind the choice of a mode.
Infrastructure usage. Competition resulting from the presence of freight and passenger traffic on the same itineraries linking the same nodes. Each level of capacity used by a mode is therefore at the expense of the other mode.
source https://transportgeography.org/?page_id=1731
Une autre façon de voir la compétition entre les modes est de penser à l'histoire des habitats humains et de l'aménagement du territoire.
Parts modales de région urbaines https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_share
source CIV6707A, notes de Pierre-Léo Bourbonnais
== Grandes tendances en transport ==