Enseignement de l'indonésien/Leçons/Ceci et cela

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00%.svg Leçons
00%.svg Niveau Un
00%.svg 1.01 Ceci, cela
00%.svg 1.02 Introduction
00%.svg 1.03 Arc-en-ciel
00%.svg 1.04 La famille
00%.svg 1.05 L'école
00%.svg 1.06 La maison
00%.svg 1.07 La météo
00%.svg 1.08 Travel
00%.svg 1.09 Art
00%.svg 1.10 Science
00%.svg ExamenPlanning
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^ Enseignement de l'indonésien ^ |  << Leçon 1: Salutations  | Leçon 2: Ceci, cela | Leçon 3: Pronoms >>

Arti Umum (General Meaning)Modifier

The word "ini" means "this" or "these".
The word "itu" means "that" or "those".

Penggunaan Pertama: Ini buku (First Usage: This [is a] book)Modifier

Contoh (Example):

  • Ini buku. ("This is a book" or "These are books")
  • Ini pensil. ("This is a pencil" or "These are pencils")
  • Itu apel. ("That is an apple" or "Those are apples")
  • Itu jeruk. ("That is an orange" or "Those are oranges")

From the examples above, you notice that in Indonesian, there is no notion of "to be" as in English. It is already implied by the structure or the vocabulary used in the sentence.

In addition, when mentioning a noun, it is not certain whether the noun is singular or plural. It depends on the context. When there is no context, it is assumed to be singular.

Penggunaan Kedua: Buku ini merah (Second Usage: This book [is] red)Modifier

Contoh (Example):

  • Buku ini merah. ("This book is red" or "These books are red")
  • Apel ini hijau. ("This apple is green" or "These apples are green")
  • Pensil itu hitam. ("That pencil is black" or "Those pencils are black")
  • Jeruk itu jingga. ("That orange is orange" or "Those oranges are orange")

Notice the difference between the first pattern and the second one:

  • The first pattern is '(Ini/Itu) + Noun', which means 'This/That is/are Noun'.
  • The second pattern is 'Noun + (Ini/Itu) + Adjective', which means 'This/That Noun is/are Adjective'

Bentuk Negatif (Negative Form)Modifier

There are two "keywords" in Indonesian that indicate negative meaning:

  • Bukan → To deny nouns or state/pronouns
  • Tidak → To deny adjectives or verbs

In some cases, we can use either bukan or tidak, but we'll discuss this later.

Contoh (Example):

  • Ini bukan buku. ("This is not a book" or "These are not books")
  • Ini bukan pensil. ("This is not a pencil" or "These are not pencils")
  • Itu bukan apel. ("That is not an apple" or "Those are not apples")
  • Itu bukan jeruk. ("That is not an orange" or "Those are not oranges")

Here, we use bukan, because we're denying the nouns. However, look at the following example:

  • Ini tidak benar. ("This is not right")

This time, we deny the adjective of not being right. (Benar = right / correct)

Likewise, look at the following examples: Contoh (Example):

  • Buku ini tidak merah. ("This book is not red" or "These books are not red")
  • Apel ini tidak hijau. ("This apple is not green" or "These apples are not green")
  • Pensil itu tidak hitam. ("That pencil is not black" or "Those pencils not are black")
  • Jeruk itu tidak jingga. ("That orange is not orange" or "Those oranges are not orange")

In these examples, we use tidak because this time we're denying the adjectives.

Bentuk Interogatif (Interrogative Form)Modifier

The word "apa" (= "what") can be used to form interrogative sentences using "ini" or "itu".

  • Apa ini? ("What is/are this/these?")
  • Apa itu? ("What is/are that/those?")

Contoh (Example):

  • Q: Apa ini?
  • A: Ini buku.

You can use "apa ini" or "apa itu" to ask on how this or that thing (pointed by your finger) is called in Indonesian.

^ Enseignement de l'indonésien ^ |  << Leçon 1: Salutations  | Lesson 2: This, That | Leçon 3: Pronoms >>

Level One Lessons  

1.01 This and That  1.02 Introduction  1.03 Rainbow  1.04 Family  1.05 School  1.06 The House  1.07 Weather  1.08 Travel  1.09 Art  1.10 Science  Test  

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